Since 1437, Edinburgh has been the capital of Scotland. The city is situated near the Firth of Forth’s southern bank in Lothian. Bordered by East Lothian, Midlothian, and West Lothian, hills, and the coast, the geographic area of the city is hilly.
Besides hills, the Green belt also surrounds almost all of Edinburgh’s border areas. Green belt refers to the naturally preserved areas under the policy that separates each town and Edinburgh itself with other cities. The policy makes Edinburgh as the greenest city in the U.K. The number of green spaces reaches 49.2% of the city. It makes tress numbers in Edinburgh surpass the population.
The population has reached 536.775 people in 2020 making the city the second-most populous city in Scotland. Citizens of Edinburgh are called ‘Edinburghers’. Their ethnicities mostly are Scottish. The earliest human habitation in Edinburgh was in 8.500 BC specifically in the Cramond suburb.
Edinburgh’s recorded history was started in the first century AD when the Romans first came to Lothian and built a fort at Cramond. At the time, there had been a tribe called Votadini. The tribe controlled Edinburgh until 638 AD when the Northumbria king defeated Votadini and included Edinburgh under Northumbria rules.
It was only until the late ninth century when Viking raids on Britain happened taking Edinburgh back to Scotland. Ever since the Kingdom of Scotland was established, Edinburgh was part of it. Battles between Scotland and England occurred several times. The battles were ended in 1707 when the two Kingdoms were united making Great Britain.
Due to its long history, there are many ancient buildings and sites such as the medieval Old and Neoclassical New towns. The towns are classified as World heritage site by UNESCO in 1995. Most buildings also have a gothic revival architectural style with arched windows and several stories.
Iconic buildings worth visiting are the Edinburgh Castle, Holyrood Palace, Scottish national gallery, Calton Hill and Scott Monument, Melrose Abbey, and others. Other than sightseeing the town view, shopping in Princess street is another tourist attraction in Edinburgh. Jenner, the oldest department store in Scotland, lies on the street since 1838.
Another famous street in the city is Royal Mile. This street has been the main location of the Edinburgh Festival Fringe for many years. The festival cover street performing arts like circus, musicals, comedy, cabaret, theatre, and more. The open festival is first held in 1947.
Indeed, Edinburgh is the city of festivals. There are more than twenty-five festivals in a year. Some popular festivals are the Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo, Jazz & Blues Festivals, and International Book Festival. The book festival is attended by thousands of authors all over the world.
Talking about books and literature, many masterpieces were born in this city. As for the example, the overseas-success Harry Potter story is mostly written by J.K. Rowling in the Elephant House Cafe. Another famous writer is Sir Arthur Conan Doyle created Sherlock Holmes story. The story was inspired by Prof. Joseph Bell who could diagnose so fast when Doyle was at the University of Edinburgh’s medical school.
The University of Edinburgh is the best uni in this city. Besides, there are other universities such as Edinburgh Napier University, Heriot-Watt University, Leith School of Art, and others. Universities, colleges, academies, secondary and junior high schools are part of Edinburgh’s education. State-funded secondary and high school education is free.
The number of international students is increasing. They could reach Edinburgh via planes, trains, or buses. From London, flights only take 1.5 hours and trains take 5 hours. In Edinburgh, people usually use public transports that are buses, trams, and taxis.
As the Green city, most citizens of Edinburgh use bikes or walking. It is another way to reduce carbons for clean air. This city was used to be called ‘the Old Smokey’ due to excessive coal burning to heat houses. The effect that remains can be seen in the old buildings which are mostly blackened.
Related to smoke, Edinburgh has another story about fire. In 1824, the Great Fire of Edinburgh happened. James Braidwood as the leader of the first organized fire brigades fought the fire with his team for six days. Nowadays, every area of Edinburgh belongs to the smoke control area.
Landscape of Edinburgh, Ultimate Combination of Nature and Human Civilization. In United Kingdom, you can easily find cities which incorporate nature and manmade parts. The capital of Scotland, Edinburgh, is a city that very successfully combines those two aspects. That notion is proven by the fact that most tourists who had visited this city voted as one of the most stunning cities in the world. What kind of landscape that the city has? What are the efforts its government makes to preserve its charm?
First of all, it will be helpful to know the natural landscape of this city beforehand. In its earlier time, the city consisted mostly of steep hills and shallow volcanic. The materials released by the volcanic mountain during eruptions created sedimentation which further shaped the city so that it turned into the Edinburgh today. As years went by the volcanic became dormant but the spectacular city landscape had been formed as results. It is hypothesized that the entire process took about 400 years.
Even if the hills became less steep because of sedimentation
You can still see those hills surrounding the city. They provide gorgeous viewpoints. You are also lucky that because of its geographical location, the city has mild climate. It means that the temperature change between seasons is not drastic. Tourist will be able to have a great time visiting Edinburgh at all year.
The results of civilization are without doubt contributing to the city’s whole landscape as well. There are two highlighted parts of the city: Old Town and New Town. When visiting Old Town, you will immediately sense the medieval vibe of Edinburgh. The buildings within this area were built around 12th to 17th centuries. Some landmarks located in this part of the city include The Grassmarket, St. Giles’ Cathedral, and Holyrood Palace. Tourists can easily find accommodations alongside its narrow streets to fully embrace the medieval feeling.
What about the New Town? This area was mostly built around the end of 17th century. Most of the buildings located in this area would display neoclassical look which is influenced by Greek culture. New Town offers an entirely different feeling if compared to the Old Town. Its landmarks are Scottish National Gallery, West End, and the Georgian House. Spending the time walking through its wide roads would be a nice experience.
The efforts that government employs to ensure that
Edinburgh will still maintain its traditional landscape and look are pretty expensive. There are certain building codes to ensure construction or renovation projects will adhere to the characteristics of Edinburgh. Moreover, the government makes sure that the city’s landscape would still offer the optimum scenery by preventing new buildings from obstructing it from view.
Its natural landscape is also still maintained really well. Among the concretes, you will be able to see hampers of green space. Visitors can hike some of the hills to enjoy the view of Edinburgh on good days. That would be a nice opportunity to see vegetation native to Scotland as well. The shoreline of Edinburgh is also a nice spot to visit if you want to get away a little bit from the bustling of the city.
Interesting Spots That You Can Visit in the Old Town, Edinburgh. Edinburgh is an attractive tourist destination for people around the globe and there is definitely a good reason for that. This old town offers numerous attractive places to visit. Some places are very notorious but the others might be a hidden gem that you have to unveil on a visit there yourself. Whether you are fonder of exploring historical spots or the modern ones, you will be satisfied because the options are very diverse.
Are you an art enthusiast? If so, you should spare a time to visit Scottish National Gallery. This gallery keeps sculptures and paintings made by European artists from various classical eras including ones made by Picasso and Rembrandt. Visitors would be able to see artworks from Renaissance era or even the Impressionist time. There are some educational events such as gallery tours, art lectures, and even classes to participate in. For those who favor modern arts more, there is a shuttle bus from the gallery to Scottish National Gallery of Modern Arts that keeps contemporary collections such as from Andy Warhol and Simon Starling.
Architecture geeks will also find Edinburgh fascinating.
There are many beautiful buildings surrounding the city. In addition to having elegant structure, each building also has cultural significance. Georgian House is a must-visit if you love architecture. It is a representative of Edinburgh townhouse during the eighteenth century. Although the building had seen restoration, it still maintains the original look. Visitors would be able to experience a little taste of upper middle class life in that era by visiting this spot.
Those who favor more of historically significant places can actually go to palaces or cathedrals within Edinburgh. Holyrood Palace is one of the main attractions known to public. It is dedicated as royal family residence in Scotland. There are various interesting tales surrounding this palace ever since its construction during Charles II’s reign. More than that, the Baroque-style architecture with its antique decorations would lure everyone with charm. This place is also located closely to the infamous Edinburgh Castle so you can visit both places in the same day.
Biodiversity tourism is also something that you can enjoy in this town. You can go to Edinburgh Zoo that hosts diverse animal kingdom members from all around the world. Visitors can see pandas, chimpanzees, wallabies, and even penguins in this zoo. There are some events which enable visitors to interact directly with the animals there as well as learning their characteristics and proper ways to care for them.
Another place that you can visit to see rich biodiversity in one spot is Royal Botanical Garden.
There are more than 13,000 plant species kept in the garden. You will not only find plants that are native to Great Britain, but also plants from other regions as well. During Christmas season, a special event will be held, in which the garden will be decorated with beautiful lights. Visitors also get the opportunity to attend classes about plants there.
There are interesting spots to visit other than what have been mentioned in this passage. You can go to Princes Street to enjoy a day of shopping. If you are interested in unique museums, yo certainly need to visit Museum of Childhood. Those who want to enjoy traditional Scottish pub experience can visit one of the many pubs located in the city. The choices are limitless.
Historic Castles: The Edinburgh’s National Treasure. Castles are Edinburgh’s main attraction in tourism nowadays. There are dozens of castles and the most famous one is Edinburgh Castle. It is estimated that more than two million people visited Edinburgh Castle in 2018.
Besides tourism, Castles are often used as a filming location. Famous movies that were shot in Edinburgh castles are Outlaw King, T2 Trainspotting, Kuch Kuch Hota Hai, Outlander, Lallybroch, and more. Of them all, the significant importance of castles as the national treasure of Scotland is its historical value.
Castles were built for different purposes such as royal residence, prison, chapel, and military defense. Being called ‘the defender of the nation’, these are several magnificent castles in Edinburgh with their heroic history.
Stood as the oldest and largest castle in Edinburgh, the castle had been the royals’ home since King David I reign in12th century up to 1633. During times, many parts of the castle complex evolved due to sieges, deaths, and state events. The examples are the Half Moon Battery which was constructed in the backwash of Lang Siege 1573 and Margaret Chapel which was dedicated to Queen Margaret who died in 1093.
Edinburgh Castle had been the witness for many historical events such as wars of Scottish Independence, Nova Scotia and Civil war, James III release, and more. It was also the jail for many prisoners of wars and the place for witch execution. In the present, everyone could see Edinburgh history by visiting the Castle complex which consists Scottish National War Memorial, Royal Palace, Great Hall, Mons Meg, and others.
Constructed in the late 14th century, Craigmillar Castle belonged to the Preston family. In this castle, John Stewart the King James III’s brother was imprisoned due to witchcraft practice. Later, the castle became the haven and escape place for young James V and Mary of Scots to regain their Health.
The castle was also the silent witness for Lord Danley’s murder, Queen Mary’s husband. Sadly in 1544 during Rough Wooing or war between England and Scotland, the castle was burned down by English. The remains still open for the public.
Located in the middle of a lake, the castle built in the 1300s was the last place Mary of Scots stayed before escaping to England and executed. It was also the prison for Mary where she was forced to abdicate and had a miscarriage. Recently, people http://220.127.116.11 could visit this castle by cruising with a 12-person ferry.
Situated by the sea, Tantallon Castle was a tower house built and owned by the Douglass dynasty. It had survived three besieges by James IV (1491), James V (1528), and Oliver Cromwell (1651). It was the place where young James V lived for years after the rebellion against his father, James III. The beauty of this castle still remains as it is one if favorite filming locations in Scotland.
Apart from the previous castles, there are still dozens of castles in Edinburgh. Most castles nowadays have been renovated and reconstructed. Yet their story will remain. Those are some of Edinburgh’s national treasures.
Foods to Eat While In Edinburgh. You visit Scotland and Edinburgh is the first city where to start. It is capital of Scotland that might be enough to summarize your travels if do not have time for further exploring. When visiting new city, you must try something that locals eat. Most of foods from around Scotland can be found in this city.
Before exploring more about this topic, you should know the brief history of Edinburgh. It is useful to understand local custom and culture. When you are in this place, try to be a local even though you are tourist. This city was recognized as capital of Scotland since 15th century. Since that time, Edinburgh was center of science and education. You find old museum, castle, university, and many things that still preserve since old time.
List of Foods You Must Try In Edinburgh
You ask for foods that are common and unique in Scotland. The answer is haggis, which becomes the iconic foods you must try when visiting this city. In general, haggis is local cuisine from Scotland not just in this city. At first, there is nothing special about the appearance. You must take one bite and the taste brings delicious flavor. Main ingredient is sheep’s liver with herbs and spices. This menu has been in the top choice to attract tourist. Haggis showed that every part of sheep must be put into good use. As result, the haggis is made with delicious taste.
Fish and chips
You will find several foods based on fish and seafood in this city. If you like something with deep fried, fish and chips is the best options. They are the best combination for any meal. Fish is cooked with delicate method to preserve the natural taste. You can eat with bread for quick breakfast or lunch. Another option is lobster as an alternative for seafood. Of course, smoked salmon is the food that you also try with chips.
You visit Scotland and scotch pie seems to be something you should give a chance. The pie looks delicious with rich flavor. This is different from regular pie you find. In fact, pie in many countries and regions have custom taste including the one you find in Edinburgh.
Porridge is local food in Scotland that you also find in Edinburgh. It is made from salted and dried apple. It was the main food during winter. Texture is solid that can last longer. In fact, you get rich calorie and nutrients from porridge.
Shortbread will be the best companion for morning tea or evening coffee. You can enjoy this one with raspberry flavor or just plain one. Some bakeries produce shortbread with chocolate or something unique to adjust with demand.
Five foods above are enough for starting points. You can add cranachan and black pudding into the next list. While in Scotland, you should enjoy some gins and whiskeys. Local beverages are available in the pub. You visit the order the drink alongside the foods. This activity makes you feel like the Scottish people.
Higher Degree in Edinburgh: Diverse Program Options at Its Established Universities. Higher Degree in Edinburgh: Diverse Program Options at Its Established Universities. To many people, Scotland might not be the main destination for higher education degree in Great Britain. You will be surprised to know that it actually offers various interesting higher degree programs for not only for local but also global students. Edinburgh alone hosts six universities that have diverse areas of study. If you have not considered Edinburgh as a study destination, it is likely that you will after completing this passage.
Among all universities located in this city, The University of Edinburgh should be the most recognizable one. This university attracts students around the world because of its top level courses and research programs guided by world class faculty members. The subjects offered to students in this university are very varied, ranging from social sciences subjects to engineering.
If you prefer a university with varied program options but less severe competitiveness than The University of Edinburgh
you should consider Edinburgh Napier University. Each campus hosts certain departments. For example, in Sighthill Campus, you will likely to find most of the university’s clinical laboratories. It cultivates partnership with other international institutions too.
Another alternative for students who expect vast course options would be Heriot-Watt University. Its options vary from business to languages. Moreover, this university is an ideal choice for students who want to obtain more international exposures. The reason is that the university has several other campuses located in other countries such as Dubai and Malaysia. Students may get the opportunity to attend courses in another campus during their study.
Queen Margaret University is another higher degree institution located in this city. In addition to being known for having tight-knit community, there are plenty of opportunities for students to receive funding to ease up the education cost.
There is also a specific school for aspiring medical personnel named Royal College of Surgeons
In fact, this institution is quiet renowned in medical education and have been around for centuries. Yearly, thousands of students are applying for one of its top notch programs; whether in general surgery, ophthalmology, dental care, or others. The college is equipped with extensive library, training facilities, and high-tech classroom that will help developing students’ skills in clinical setting.
Are you starting to consider Edinburgh as a place to pursue higher education degree? Most students believe that living in this city would be expensive. That worry is reasonable as Edinburgh is one of major cities in United Kingdom. It is safer and friendlier for student. You will have the best study experience in there.
A Brief Outline of Living in Edinburgh. Being a capital and tourism city, Edinburgh has a lively vibe to live. There are less than 600.000 Edinburghers who enjoy their daily life in this city. Though they have different lifestyles, these are some aspects that mostly apply to the life of Edinburgh citizens.
The living cost of every single person can be different. It depends on the lifestyle, properties owned, jobs, residence location, and more. Based on some surveys, for a month the cost of living of a family with four people ranges between 2,361.95£ – 3,400£ and single person ranges between 673.09£ – 1,899£. Those numbers include food, clothes, transportation, entertainment, personal care, and housing.
The wetter season lasts longer than the drier season. The average high temperature is 19° C and the average low one is 1° C. The warmest and brightest weather usually occurs starting May until September. Yet, the rest is mostly dark and rainy. Even in summer, rains often fall. For sunshine lovers, do not hope too much on Edinburgh weather. Therefore, investing in waterproof jackets, raincoats, and umbrellas are a good thing.
Healthcare in Edinburgh is firstly started by meeting a general practitioner. The GP enrolls the patients in the NHS. It is easy to find the GP using NHS24.com as there are plenty of them. Though there may be some queues, their service is satisfying. As important as health, education in this city could suit every student’s needs. Starting from nursery up to university, public or private, and even special education, Edinburgh has varied options in this field.
In terms of public transportation, this walkable city provides city buses that run from 4:00 am till midnight. There are night buses which operate after midnight, but they are more expensive. It costs £1.7 per ticket but using Ridacard that costs £57/month gives unlimited access. There are also trams with fewer routes than buses.
Edinburghers love drinking. They usually drink on weekends or after work, so pubs, bars, and cafes can be a good place to make friends. Another way is by volunteering. The city has an abundance of tourist attractions and events throughout the year. Sometimes they need more help in certain seasons like the holiday season. Besides adding numbers to a bank account, volunteering makes a wider connection.
Also, Edinburgh is more multi-racial than other cities in Scotland and has social clubs and groups. Joining groups or clubs that suit our passion could add more friendship. Although Edinburgh is a cosmopolitan, Ediburghers are quite friendly and open.
For shops, Edinburgh has a lot and complete to offer. From merchandise for tourism to daily needs, markets in the city will fill the need. Fresh foodstuffs, crafts, flowers, clothing, others can be found at Stockbridge Market, Leith Market, Greater Grassmarket, The Pitt Market, Edinburgh Farmers Market, and Old Tolbooth Market.
Those are weekly markets to visit other than department stores like Ocean Terminal, The Gyle, Waverley Mall, and St. James Shopping Center. The international brands are easy to spot at The West End, George Street, Princess Street, and Multrees Walk.
Filming Movies in Edinburg. Ones might have an ideal place to be when it comes to hilly scenery and one place you might found. Want to be in could be in the city of Edinburg in the country of Scotland. Their ideal hilly scenes are well known for many movie makers when they want to find this type of scene in their movies. One good example perhaps the well known Braveheart movie starred by Mel Gibson, an Australian born Hollywood actor.
The story tells us about the great war they had. The Scottish, against the British occupation back then in the 12th century. Initially, Sir William Wallace was categorized as criminals amongst their own people but finally. After the great battle against the British empire and they won the war. Slowly but sure the people across Scotland turn back their support to support Sir William Wallace for their continuing fight against the British.
Sir William Wallace began to take the attention
Of the people of Scotland when he fought and killed Sir William Haseirig which was the sheriff of Lanark and also their crews, and William Wallace got helped by Sir Richard Lundie and also supported by Robert Wishart which was the great bishop of Glasgow and William Wallace saw this support as a great authorisation and great honour because Robert Wishart himself also wanted the British to lose. And the battle continues until the British and Scot signed a pact towards the end of 12th century to be in peace and give Scotland their full independence against the British. Anyway, people of Scotland never feel they were part of the British empire since the beginning.
These situations were taken into the movie of Braveheart, an epic movie of this great war of. Scotland where people of Scotland were so proud of their nation and Sir Williams Wallace, played by Mel Gibson. Seems to be a great fit into the movie and this was well accepted not only the people of the country but also throughout the world.
Many movies made in these modern.
Days required such hilly landscapes with great features of castles and stuff, to name a few. Harry Potter movies were also being shot in these locations in Scotland to perfectly shows their great hills and sceneries. To those fans of great medieval countrysides, Scotland is certainly an ideal place to play bola88 from time to time.
The movie titled Hamlet was also filmed in this country too. These are some favourite film locations in Scotland that you may also want to visit and see during your holiday in this country. Places like Gregory Hills, Red Point Beach in Wester Ross are to name a few of them. The Isle of Lewis certainly is something we don’t want to miss as well.
These great locations we captured in the movies because they seem to have everything about Scotland. From ginger hair, tales of magic, quirky clansmen, stunning sceneries and many more to what people are referring to. In short, there are too many interesting sites and places for big movie production companies to choose with in the city of Edinburg.
Unique and Enjoyable Cultures in The Capital of Scotland. As a part of Scotland, Edinburgh’s culture is mostly influenced by Scottish culture. It applies to norms, beliefs, customs, traditions, arts, and even foods. Of them all, here are some enjoyable cultures that only can be found in Edinburgh.
Being the capital of Scotland has its benefits. One of them is having complete food options from across Scotland. The restaurants in this city have every traditional Scottish dish. Therefore, tourists do not have to fly to a different region to taste Scottish dishes; Edinburgh is enough.
The famous Scottish delicacy is Haggis which is made of calf or sheep’s offal, spices, and oatmeal. The uniqueness of this food is that those ingredients are encased in an animal’s stomach. The food is served as a savory pudding. Another outlandish from the city is Stornoway black pudding. The distinctive ingredient of the food is the pig’s blood. Though its name is pudding, the final product looks more like sausages.
Other cultural delicacies that can be enjoyed in the city are Cullen Skink, Mince and Tatties, Partan Bree, Cranachan, Cock-a-leekie, Arbroath smokies, and of course its national beverage, whiskey. Some of those foods are commonly served during certain celebrations and occasions.
Celebrations and Traditions
Related to New Year, Scottish tradition has Hogmanay which means the last day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. Nowadays, Edinburgh’s Hogmanay is annually celebrated on December 30th till January 1st. The celebration includes fireworks, Cèilidh dancing, concerts and more. Another celebration is the Beltane fire festival which has historical Gaelic influence. This celebration is held on 30 April and covers ritual drama and art events.
Another unique tradition that can be seen daily is the one o’clock gun. Taken place in Edinburgh castle, Mon Meg, the giant canon, is always fired at 1 pm daily. This tradition can be traced back to the 1850s when Time-ball on Calton Hill was not visible due to bad weather. Therefore to tell the time, an auditory sign from the canon was started.
While crossing the heart of Midlothian, it is common to see Edinburghers spitting on the pavement of the royal mile. It is another tradition that came from the 1600s where the Tolbooth prison still operated. The heart sign was the mark entrance of the Prisons and people used to spit on the prisoners who came into the jail.
Other eccentric traditions in Edinburgh that still exist nowadays are enjoying 99 ice cream at Portobello Beach, eating chips with sauce and salt, getting head tapped by John Knox’s breeches, and wishing luck rubbing Hume’s toe. To know the meaning behind each tradition, visiting Edinburgh is the best way.
Like other aspects, arts including traditional music in Edinburgh are heavily influenced by Scottish culture. Traditional instruments such as bagpipes, fiddles, and harpers are part of early music in Edinburgh. Besides, the music of the city has been influenced by folk, classical, pop, rock, and jazz music.
There are lots of art collections in this city from traditional to modern, with varied dimensions. Those fine arts can be found at galleries, museums and even on some streets.